Phase 2 Task A3

Examine the identified aspect of practice (in your setting or wider context) using the two methods you have selected.  Keep notes in your journal about how well (or not) each method worked, and note any surprises and disappointments.

Method 1: for talking and listening to others about practices = Group interviews

Reading notes

Efron, S.E. and Ravid, R. (2013) Action research in education: A practical guide. London: Guildford Press.

Koshy, V. (2005) Action research for improving educational practice. 2nd ed. London: Sage.

The ultimate decision of what kind of data you need and what methods to use will depend on: • the nature of the evidence you need to collect; • the time-scale for the study; • the time available to you for carrying out the project; • the usefulness of the data you intend to collect; • a consideration of how you may interpret the data. (p78)








Method 2: for looking at practices =  Concept mapping

An introduction

Further details

Concept mapping in teaching

concept mapping


Kinchin, I. M., & Correia, P. R. M. (2017). Editorial: Pedagogic frailty and concept mapping. Knowledge Management & E-Learning, 9(3), 254–260.

“The intended use of the concept map is to enable dialogue about teaching so that academics might be able to purposefully reflect on their practice.” p257


Effects of cooperative learning and concept mapping intervention on critical thinking and basketball skills in elementary school
Authors: Mei-YaoHuangaHsin-YuTubWen-YiWangcJui-FuChendYa-TingYuaChien-ChihChouc / Thinking Skills and Creativity / Volume 23, March 2017, Pages 207-216

1.3. The definition of the concept mapping method
Novak, Gowin, and Johansen (1983) claimed that the concept mapping technique could serve as a measurement tool for accessing learners’ issues with conceptualizations and knowledge representations. Based on the concept mapping theory, concept maps consist of graphs of nodes and labeled lines that represent terms and concepts in a given domain and are used to measure important aspects of an individual’s declarative knowledge (Fitzpatrick & Zizzi, 2014). Along the same lines, Martindale and Collins (2007) argued that concept mapping visually illustrates the relationships between concepts, ideas, images, and words. Those concepts are connected by words and phrases such that the connections between the ideas are explained, facilitating learners’ structuring and organizing of their thoughts on physical activity in a logical but not rigid manner that allows future information or viewpoints to be included. Most concept mapping studies were undertaken in the context of physical education or physical activity, and most definitions of concept mapping have therefore focused on problem solving or critical thinking. For example, in a study by Visek et al. (2015), concept mapping was used to provide pictorial evidence-based blueprints for the fun integration theory that could then be used to maximize fun for children and adolescents in order to promote and sustain an active and healthy lifestyle through sport. In the same vein, Ries, Voorhees, Gittelsohn, Roche, and Astone (2008) suggested that concept mapping is unique in its ability to generate and summarize detailed information succinctly in the form of a map for physical activity. According to Ries et al. (2008), concept mapping activities allow participants to share their opinions about aspects of their environment that are important to physical activity and generate ideas about how to increase physical activity.


Sun, J. C.-Y., Hwang, G.-J., Lin, Y.-Y., Yu, S.-J., Pan, L.-C., & Chen, A. Y.-Z. (2018). A Votable Concept Mapping Approach to Promoting Students’ Attentional Behavior: An Analysis of Sequential Behavioral Patterns and Brainwave Data. Educational Technology & Society, 21 (2), 177–191.

p179: Attentional behavior and attention-associated brainwaves during a votable concept mapping activity // Engaging sufficient attention in learning tasks is essential to achieving meaningful learning. Existing empirical studies have revealed that concept mapping techniques and classroom polling tools have a positive effect on students’ engagement and attention in learning. Hwang et al. (2013) found that combining concept maps and game-based teaching tends to make learners more attentive in class and to participate more actively in the learning activities. The study of Nesbit et al. (2007) applied eye-movement tracking devices and discovered that a well-designed concept map can improve the efficiency of attention, allowing learners to allocate attentional information resources from the higher part of the hierarchy and the center of the network to more effectively complete knowledge construction.


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